| || Geographical Conditions|
With a surface area of around 23,756.4 square kilometers, Mazandaran Province accounts for some 1.46 percent of the whole national area of Iran in the north. This province reaches the Caspian Sea from the north, Tehran and Semnan Provinces from the south, as well as Gilan and Golestan Provinces from the west and east respectively.
According the latest administrative divisions, this province includes 20 counties of Amol, Babol, Babolsar, Behshahr, Tonekabon, Juibar, Chalus, Ramsar, Sari, Savadkuh, Simorgh, Ghaemshahr, Galugah, Mahmudabad, Miandorud, Neka, Noor, Noshahr, Fereidoonkenar and Abbasabad, 56 cities, 48 districts, 113 rural districts and 3,697 villages.
The climate in Mazandaran Province is moderate and humid (also known as Caspian Moderate), mainly due to the Alborz Mountains extending in the south, proximity to the sea and the abundant flora.
Archaeological studies reveal that the Caspian coasts have hosted prehistoric, historic and Islamic civilizations in Iran, and the Caves of Ali Tappeh (dating back to 12,500 BC), Hoto and Kamarband (9,500 BC) have been discovered as the most ancient habitations of primitive people in the region.
International Miankaleh Lagoon:
Peninsula is located on the southeast of the Caspian Sea, and some 50
kilometers northeast of Behshahr City. It holds an area of 68,800 hectares and
is 20 meters below the sea level. This ecosystem is composed of sandy beaches,
quagmires, ponds and arboreal areas, and has been identified as a significant
habitat for birds by BirdLife International. Some 126 aquatic bird
species have been reported in this area, 40 of which bear international
importance, and it also hosts reproductive areas for egrets, herons, swallows
and glareolas during summer time. Besides the significant bird population, this
area houses mammals such as jackals, wild hogs, jungle cats and Caspian seals.
The Port of Amirabad, the Abbasabad Natural and Historical Complex in Behshahr,
and Cheshmeh Emarat can be named as some of the attractions around this
Abbasabad Natural and Historical Complex
complex is located some 9 kilometers southeast of Behshahr City, near Altappeh
Village, and includes a multi-storied garden, bathroom, two brick towers,
irrigation channels, cobblestone roads, water mill, Golbagh Area
(irrigation station), possible venue of the castle, industrial centers, the
dam, and the four-arch structure at the center of the dam reservoir, which was
ordered by King Abbas I, and built in the years 1611-2 by Iranian
Historical Sefidchah Cemetery:
cemetery is located in the south of Galugah County and near Sefidchah
Village. In a vast area, thousands of stone slabs in different forms are
erected in this cemetery, in a manner that they appear like a crowd dressed in
black if viewed from a distance. On the slabs, some patterns and decorations,
or even images of the deceased's belongings have been engraved, and some date
back to the late Safavid Era.
garden, with its old cypress trees, stone creeks and several ponds is located
in the center of Behshahr City, and was ordered to be built by King Abbas I.
Gohartappeh Museum Site
Gohartappeh is the largest and most
important historic sites on the Caspian coast, and Iranian archaeologists
started their studies on the venue in 2001. The site is located some 10
kilometers west of Behshahr City, and hosts civilization evidences from the
prehistoric era (5,500 years ago) to the first millennium BC.
investigations of the site and discovery of some residential sections, industrial
areas and the fences, the archaeologists reached the conclusion that the area
belonged to a prehistoric city. Since 2005, the area has been maintained as a
museum site, and archaeologists from Germany and Poland are collaborating with
the Iranian team in exploration efforts.
Farahabad Historical Complex
historical complex is 30 to 40 hectares vast, and located some 28 kilometers
away from Sari City. It has been mentioned in the historical scripts of Tahan,
and King Abbas I expanded it by constructing the bridge, palace, bathroom,
mosque and school, and named it Farahabad.
Museums and Monuments to Be Visited
1. Museum of Behshahr Martyrs:
Golzar Saro, 5 kilometers down Behshahr-Galugah Road;
2. Gohartappeh Museum Site: After
Islamic Azad University, Rostamkola, Behshahr;
3. Safavid Edifice and Spring: Beside
Water Organization, Pasdaran Street, Gorgan Junction, Behshahr;
4. Abbasabad Safavid Complex: 7
kilometers southeast of Behshahr;
5. Kalbadi Museum
Kalbadi Edifice was ordered by Sardar Jalil, a military general of late Qajar
Dynasty, to be built for his son, Amir Nosrat, who died in his prime.
Sardar Jalil then granted the edifice to Nosrat's son, Manuchehr Khan.
Khan Kalbadi, once a parliament member representing Sari, died in 1983, and the
edifice was later transferred to the Iranian Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts and
Tourism Organization in 1991. Eighteen years later in 2009 and on the 30th
anniversary of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, a museum of traditional arts,
handicrafts and archaeology was inaugurated in this edifice. This museum is
located in Sari, in a district known as Chaharrah Bargh.
architecture of this edifice belongs to the Isfahan School and Qajarite
style, and includes an inner and outer part. The edifice was built with two
stories and a cellar, and each floor includes a main traditional living room
called shahneshin, and some rooms on the sides. The shahneshin on the
second floor, with its sash window decorations and Girih tiles on the windows,
is one of the most beautiful rooms of the edifice. The construction materials
include timbers, bricks and adobes, and the roof comprises tile ridges. Apart
from the residential quarters, the edifice also includes a stable, kitchen,
servants' quarters and a bathroom, all of which are used for other purposes
bathroom includes an outer area called sarbineh, and a warmhouse, which
had cold and warm washing basins.
museum has various works of traditional arts, handicrafts, demographic and
archaeology on display. Some items date some 7,000 years back, and the
diversity of pottery, metallic, glass and stone wares ranging from the
prehistoric Iran to late Qajarite Era narrates the culture and past of
Iran and Mazandaran.